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 Introduction

 

1.1. Introduction

Tehran Province covers an area of 18,814 square kilometers and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran. There are 13 counties in the province including Damavand, Eslamshahr, Firouzkooh, Rey, Robat Karim, Shemiranat, Tehran, Varamin, Pakdasht, Shahriar, Malard and Ghods.
Tehran Province borders Mazandaran Province in the north, Qom Province in the south, Semnan Province to the east, and Karaj Province in the west. The metropolis of Tehran is the capital city of the province and of Iran. The province includes 43 municipalities and 1358 villages.
Tehran province contributes approximately 29% of the country's GDP. Furthermore, it houses approximately 16% of the country's population. Tehran Province is the most industrialized province in Iran; 89% of its population resides in urban areas and 11% of its population resides in rural areas. The province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by the Qajar dynasty in 1778. Today, Tehran, with a population of more than 7 million, is ranked amongst the 20 most populous metropolitan cities of the world.
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province, With an estimated population of 9,000,000 and also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the 21st largest city in the world.
Tehran is the centre of most Iranian industries including automotive, electrical, military, weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical. Tehran is also a leading centre for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery located south of the city.
In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to mass-migration of people from all around Iran. Tehran has a diverse range of peopl, cultures and religions, notably a sizable Armenian community. Many languages are spoken within its boundaries as a result. The city is home to many historic mosques, churches, synagogues and Zoroastrian fire temples. Contemporary Tehran is a modern city featuring many tall structures, of which the Azadi (freedom) Tower and the Milad Tower have come to be symbols of Tehran itself. Internationally Tehran is the least expensive capital in the world and only the second least expensive city globally based on Cost-of-living index, in addition to presenting the best value for money in the world. Furthermore globally it stands 19th by city population, 56th by the size of its GDP and 29th by the population of its metropolitan area. Due to long history of Iran, there have been many instances of capital city relocations over the ages and Tehran, currently is the 32nd national capital of Iran
Central coordination of Tehran province locates in 35.7117°N 51.4070°E.

1.2. Geography and Climate

The province of Tehran has over 12 million inhabitants and is Iran's most densely-populated region. The highest point of the province is Mount Damavand, at an elevation of 5678 m above sea level; the lowest point of the province is the plains of Varamin, 790 m above sea level. The province contains more than 330 square kilometres of forests, and over 12'800 square kilometres of pasture. The largest rivers of this province are Karaj River and Jajrud River.
Mountain ranges such as The Alborz span the north; Savad Kooh and Firooz Kooh are located in the north east; Lavasanat, Qarah Daq, Shemiranat, Hassan Abad and Namak Mountains are in the southern areas; Bibi Shahr Banoo and Alqadr are situated in the south east and the heights of Qasr-e-Firoozeh being located to the east of the province.
Environmentally speaking, the climate of Tehran province in the southern areas is warm and dry, but in the mountain vicinity is cold and semi-humid, and in the higher regions is cold with long winters. The hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range from 28°-30°C and the coldest months experience 1°C around December–January, but at certain times in winter it can reach -15°C. Tehran city has moderate winters and hot summers. Average annual rainfall is approximately 200 mm, the maximum being during the winter season. On the whole the province has a semi arid, steppe climate in the south and an alpine climate in the north.
Tehran features a semi-arid, continental climate. Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz Mountains to its north and the central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in the spring, hot and dry in the summer, pleasant in the autumn, and cold in the winter. As a large city with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north as compared to the flat southern part of Tehran. Summer is usually hot and dry with very little rain, but relative humidity is generally low and the nights are cool. The majority of the light annual precipitation occurs from late-autumn to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet. The hottest month is July (min. temp. 26°C, max. temp. 36°C) and the coldest is January (min. temp. -1°C, max. temp. 8°C).
The Alborz mountain range definitely moderates climate. Humid and rainy winds also moderate fiery heat of Kavir, but don't deactivate its effect. There are some geographical tourism appeals in Tehran province as below:
Sangan Waterfall is a beautiful waterfall located near Sangan Village, about 20 km northwest of Tehran.
Evin is a neighbourhood in the north of Tehran. The district consists of an old section, filled with orchards and gardens of old houses, and a new section, with towering high rises and gleaming skyscrapers. It is adjacent to Shahid Beheshti University campus and is notorious for the nearby Evin Prison; it is minutes away from the popular and beautiful Darakeh hiking trail. Hiking is a national pastime in Iran, and this trail thus brings many tourists to the area.
Jajrood River is a river of northern Iran. It flows through the Alborz mountain range.
Darakeh is a neighbourhood located north of the provincial capital of Tehran, Iran. It is near Evin and Velenjak, and it has a very beautiful hiking area.
Road 59 (Jadeh Chaloos) is the most important road for Tehrani people. Because on weekends many people go to north of Iran and it is one of the most crowded roads in Iran.
Mount Damavand, also known as Donbavand, a potentially active volcano and the highest peak in Iran, has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore. Located in the middle Alborz Range, adjacent to Vararu, Sesang, Gol-e Zard and Mianrud, it is the highest point in the Middle East and the highest volcano in all of Asia. It is a potentially active volcano, since there are fumaroles near the summit crater emitting sulfur, which were known to be active on July 6, 2007.
The mountain is located near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, in Amol county, Mazandaran, 66 km northeast of Tehran. Damavand is, as any cursory reading of Persian literature will indicate, the Mount Olympus of Persian mythology.
Damavand is the symbol of Iranian resistance against despotism and foreign rule in Persian poetry and literature. In Zoroastrian texts and mythology, the three-headed dragon Azi Dahaka was chained within Mount Damavand, there to remain until the end of the world. In a later version of the same legend, the tyrant Zahhak was also chained in a cave somewhere in Mount Damavand after being defeated by Kaveh and Fereyd?n. The mountain is said to hold magical powers in the Shahnameh.
Mt Damavand has some thermal springs with therapeutic qualities. These mineral hot springs are mainly located on the volcano's flanks and at the base, giving evidence of volcanic heat comparatively near the surface of the earth. While no historic eruptions have been recorded, hot springs at the base and on the flanks, and fumaroles and solfatara near the summit, indicate a hot or cooling magma body still present beneath the volcano, so that Damavand is a potentially active volcano.
The most important of these hot springs are located in Abe Garm Larijan in a village by the name Larijan in the district of Larijan in Lar Valley. The water from this spring is useful in the treatment of chronic wounds and skin diseases. Near these springs there are public baths with small pools for public use.
The best major settlement for mountain climbers is the new Iranian Mountain Federation Camp in Polour village, located on the south of the mountain. There are at least 16 known routes to the summit which have different difficulties. Some of them are very dangerous and requires rock climbing. The most popular route is the Southern Route which has step stamps and also a camp midway called Bargah Sevom Camp/Shelter. The longest route is the Northeastern and it takes two whole days to reach the summit starting from downhill village of Nandal and a night stay at Takht-e Fereydoun, a two-story shelter. The western route is famous for its sunset view. S?morgh shelter in this route at 4100 m (about 13,500 ft) is a newly constructed shelter with two stories. There is a frozen waterfall/Icefall (Abshar Yakhi) about 12m tall and the elevation of 5100m is the highest fall in Iran and Middle East.

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